Liquid Dynamics
Liquid Dynamics Inc. Techincal Services
LIQUID DYNAMICS Ltd. offer Pulsation / Vibraton and Shock - Analysis & Diagnostics + Software Models
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Fluid Flow Control Animations
Fluid Flow Control Animations

Shock and Water Hammer

Shock waves are created in a pipe full of liquid when either a valve is closed too quickly, forcing the liquid column to stop moving more quickly than it wants to, or when a pump is started up too quickly, forcing the liquid column to start moving more quickly than it wants to. In either situation, the shock wave travels up and down the pipe through the liquid, banging against each end of the pipe.

This banging can be heard as water hammer. Try it at home - turn on your tap, then turn it off very quickly. You should hear a bang, and maybe even several. If you turn the tap off more slowly, it should stay quiet, as the liquid in the pipes slows down more gradually.

In industry, the pipes can be very large, and water hammer may not just be heard as a bang - it can cause a great deal of damage, even rupturing pipes. LDi can supply a range of hardware to prevent these shocks, and a complete software-based water-hammer analysis to recommend system modifications which remove the shock.

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If you have a pipeline or pump user problem which requires pulsation analysis, diagnostics, or prediction by software:
The definitions of many problems can be found at


Liquid Dynamics provides pipeline and pump user problem analysis, diagnostics, and prediction by software. For water hammer and shock solutions pulsation dampening and shock alleviating devices can be obtained from our associate websites PulseGuard and ShockGuard.


For Hardware see our associate websites: and for further information about pulsation dampeners and pumping systems. and to find large gas bag vessels, jumbo bladders, float separator and big bellows type pipeline shock attenuators and expansion / contraction volume compensators. for more about pulse dampers in pumping systems and water hammer.
Water Hammer  and for more on water hammer, pump start up surge, shut down back flow, & valve closure hammer. and for information about energy saving in pumping systems, standby emergency power, and safety shutdown systems. for a quick view of how each different type of pulse dampener is matched to a pump installation. Pumps make flow, system resistance to flow is pressure, systems make pressure and pressure pulsation. to find protection against excess flow. Guard against toxic spills when pipes burst, guard against gushers and fluid loss when hoses split, Flow-Guard guards against excess flow floods.

Fluid Flow Control The Fluid Flow Control Source Pumps Accumulators Filters Dampers Heat Exchangers Valves Mixers P.I. / Pressure Indicators Controls Meters Vessels